业力与占卜(Karma & Divination)

最近我听见一些人说,他在占塔罗的时候,不会给客人提建议,因为提建议会导致他自己承担客人的业力。

这说法实在惊为天人,我所知的大部分读牌人都是为了获得信息、指引而去占卜的。同样,在中国传统里,古人们也都认同用占卜来“趋吉避凶”。

Recently I heard someone claimed that he won’t give any advice in a tarot reading, for that will take he a role in client’s life and make him sharing client’s karma.

It’s a surprising statement because most of tarot readers I know that are doing a reading for gaining information and guidelines. Also, in Chinese tradition, many ancients agrees that “to seek fortune and avoid misfortune” is the reason we use divination tools.

目前塔罗读牌人们往往偏爱用占卜来取得洞察、认识自我,而不是预测。因为我们有自由意志,可以改变自己的人生。显然前面那个人把这个观念极端化了,以至于读牌人不应当试图对问卜者做出任何影响,比如去指导问卜者,否则就会反过来被遭受坏事。

可是,从我们一开始占卜的时候不就已经在对问卜者施加影响了吗?问卜者尝试信任(无论多寡)我们,聆听我们对这些牌的看法。无论读牌人有没有给建议问卜者,问卜者总会听到一些别处听不到的东西,无论是洞察还是预测还是安慰……问卜者试着理解这些东西、思考、评判、甚至拒绝这些东西。这个过程要怎么样不去影响到问卜者?

在印度教里,业(Karma)的意思是“行动、工作、行为”,这是个中性词。通常我们用这个术语描述那些我们做的事情以及由此产生的反作用。因此,我们思索的、诉说的、做过的、参与过的每时每刻都是业。在佛教里,业是个人的意愿,会显现在客观行动、言语、头脑思维上。它同样是个中性词,但佛教徒更重视避免去做恶业。其中,口业会进一步分为恶语、 妄语、绮语、两舌。

基于这些概念,我会这样说:读牌人乃是在任何一种风格的占卜过程中创造出他/她自己的业力,或者,只要读牌人所言真实、友善,他/她就不会制造出恶业。

There is a tendency among tarot readers that we use tarot for gaining insight and self-knowledge rather than prediction. Because we all have free will to change ourselves. Seemingly, that one extents this idea to extreme, so readers should not make any effect to querents. For example the tarot reader guides them, or he would rebound something so bad.

But don’t we made any effect while we are just starting to read for a querent? Querents put their trust (more or less) in us, listen to what we view in these cards. Whether the reader suggest s/he or not, they will hear something they won’t hear from others, whatever it’s an insight or prediction or comfort or so, they will try to make it sense, consider it, judge it, or refuse it. How can this course make no effect to them?

In Hinduism, the word Karma means action, work, or deed, it’s neutral. Mostly we use this word to describe the action we do and its reaction. Therefore everything that we have ever thought, spoken, done or caused at every moment is karma. In Buddhism, karma is intention and it can be manifested through the ways of physical actions, speech and mental thoughts. It’s also neutral but Buddhists focus on avoid those evil karma. The evil vocal karma is further divided into curse, lying, flatter, and discord.

According to these, I may say: the reader creates HER/HIS OWN KARMA while doing any styles of reading, or the reader creates no evil karma as long as s/he says something nice and true.

就我所知,在印度的传统里并没有“承担别人的业力”这种说法。我试着谷歌搜索看到这么一个 Q&A

确实有一些佛教徒相信,我们可以将功德分享给他人(包括转赠给死者)。一般的业力与特定的功德其实不同,不过这不是这里该探讨的。就我个人来说,我不相信功德可以分享,但有些人相信可以。

这种分享的观点,更接近传统的中国理论,它说家族里的所有人都会共享好运与厄运。祖辈们从个体业力的理论里发展出了这一套理论,用来解释为什么坏人却过着好日子。他们说,是因为这些坏人还没把自己祖先积累下来的福报消耗光,所以看起来他们没有因自己的罪行而受到惩罚。

然而这套理论限制了业力只能在家族、血缘关系内部转移。通常,占卜咨询是发生在两个并没有亲近关系的人之间。这能建立起让业力分享或转移的桥梁吗?而且记住,印度和中国的业力理论都是中性的,那么,到底是哪种业力,好的还是坏的业力,可能会转移?你的观点是什么?

As I know, there is no information about “sharing someone’s karma” in Hindu tradition. I tried to google it and found a Q&A about that.

There are groups of Buddhists (and others) who believe that merit can be shared (or even transferred to the dead). There are subtle differences between karma in general and merit specifically, but that’s a discussion for another time. Personally, I’m not a believer in the sharing of merit, but others are.

I think it looks more likely a traditional Chinese theory that all members of a family share their fortune and misfortune. Our elder generation developed it from the law of individual karma to explain why a bad man still have a good life. They told us, because they haven’t consumed fortune accumulated by their ancients out, seemingly they had no punishment for their vice.

However, this theory limits the karma transfers among family or bloodline. Usually, a divination consultation happen between two people who don’t have close relationship. Could it build a bridge to transfer or share one’s karma to another? Remember also, both Hindu and Chinese karma theory are neutral. So which kind of karma, good or evil, it would transfer? What’s your opinion?

一开始说的那个人也说,如果问卜者按照读牌人给出的建议去行动,问卜者就会死去自己的自由意志!问卜者应当任何事情都由自己选择,所以读牌人不可以干涉问卜者的人生。

从商业交易的角度考虑一下,当一个人去寻找占卜师,他/她是凭着自己的自由意志去寻求建议的,而占卜师应当满足这个愿望以获得报酬。在卜卦占星或雷诺曼的占卜圈子里,占卜师不会如此抗拒预测、预测命运的说法。消费者是要去探查真相、求取最好的对策,所以很多这些占卜师会给出这样的回答“买它更好,选它吧”、“这个人不是真心爱你,但这里有另一个选择,大概在两三个月后,你需要保持耐心等待一下。”占卜师的建议真的伤害了问卜者的自由意志吗?我不认为如此。我甚至想问另一个更大的问题——人类真的有自由意志吗?但这篇文章里我们不适合讨论这种问题。

我相信,如果人们知道明天的天气怎么样,他们可以改变自己的计划或更充分地准备,而这正是自由意志的所在之处。Keith E. Stanovich在《机器人叛乱》里呼吁人们不要成为模因(Mimic)和基因(Gene)的奴隶,要凭借自己更高级的理性去反思它们。我认为这个观点对于我们的话题也很合适。我们的文化、习惯、社交关系、所有我们参与其中的事务,它们都在修饰我们、筑造我们、约束我们未来的发展方向,但如果我们不去觉知它们,它们也不会主动来助益我们。我们对它们的觉知和理解会增益我们的自由意志。

给出建议并不意味着占卜师强迫问卜者选择那个被建议的选项。这可以是平等地商讨完那些占卜得到的预测、洞察之后而形成的双方共识。另一方面,很多塔罗牌阵就会给出建议的位置了,所以建议其实不是读牌人给出的,是塔罗牌给出的。相比起刻板地拒绝给出任何建议,不如花时间反思读牌人自己有没有过于自以为是。

That man I told in the beginning also says, when the querents follows the suggestion which the reader give to her/him, the querents will lost her/his free will! They should do ANYTHING with their own choice so the reader should not intervene their own life.

To think it as a business deal, when someone goes to a diviner, s/he seeks for suggestions with her/his own free will, and the diviner should fulfill this will for the payment. In the realm of horary astrology or lenormand reading, diviners do not reject the concept of prediction or fortune-telling so much. Customers come to seek true situation and the best solutions, that’s why a lot of diviners provide answers like “buy this is a good choice, choose it” or “this guy don’t love you honestly, but there is another opportunity, maybe two or three months after, keep patience and waiting.” Have the diviners’ suggestions injured the querent’s free will? I don’t think so. And I’m wondering another big question — does human have free will or not…? But we have no space and time to discuss it.

I believe that if people know what the weather will be tomorrow, they can change their plans or prepare more enough, and this is where free will exists. Keith E. Stanovich in his The Robot’s Rebellion appeal human not to be enslaved by mimic and gene but to reflect them by our higher rationality. I think its opinion also work well in our subject. There are so many stuffs which have power to over our will. Our culture, our habits, our social relationship, things what we have been involved, they define us, they build us, they limit our future from present, but they have no idea to benefit us if we can’t understand them with awareness first. This understanding enhances our free will.

Providing a guidance doesn’t mean the diviner should force her/his querent to take the recommended choice. It can be a consensus after an equal discussion with all predictions or insights they gained from a reading. On the other hand, many tarot spreads give us a position of advice to use, so the guidance sometimes doesn’t come from reader but the cards themselves. It will be better and more ethical to reflect if we readers be too arrogant, than rejecting giving any suggestions rigidly.

其实还有另一种观念是,占卜师必须收取占卜的报酬,否则客户自己会受到业力的惩罚,因为占卜是窥探天机。那个人也提到了这些,但他的见解是,(给了建议后)业力都转移了光靠付钱也没法消除。

读牌人要怎么能仅凭一副牌(或起个星盘)就窥探天机啊?如果这么简单,我得说上天也太弱鸡了吧。

很多塔罗书告诉我“占卜(divination)”的意思就是“与神沟通”,我认为“神(或者高我或者宇宙或者别的什么)”有权利也有权力保守一些秘密。我们怀着好奇和真诚,尽我们所能去触及我们占卜工具的极限,但总有东西是在这个极限之外的。

有时候我隐约感觉,塔罗牌并没有告知我们实际上发生了什么,而是它们“认为”我最好去知道些什么、去做些什么,即便我认为那是难走的、不好的道路。有时候我感觉上天也会说一些善意的谎言。我不是很肯定,可能只是那些占卜的时候我出了啥错。Rachel Pollack说过(我朋友转述的),塔罗牌总是会给出最能让你理解的牌面。其实我不太能接受这种说法。确实有一些人抽出来的牌,自己解很顺,我解不出。但也有我自己抽牌,但是我完全无法理解的情况,这是塔罗给出了不适合我解读的牌?

那么,如果读牌人永远无法知道“我们当下或以后不应该知道些什么”,那我们也不应当因为这种原因而受惩罚。你们怎么想?占卜真的有什么特殊的性质,让这事那么诡异那么神妙,以致于我们必须仔细留意,绝对不能忘记三倍法则和业力?

你们对这些议题有啥想法?也跟我说说吧!

There is another idea that diviners must get rewards for reading, or the clients will be punished by karma, because divination is divulging the secrets of universe. That guy also mentions it, but he thinks it’s not able to pay off all karma by merely money after the karma is transferred with the advice has given.

How can we reader divulge the secrets of universe with just a pack of cards(or just a drawing of horoscope chart)? If so, the universe is vulnerable enough, I may say.

There are many tarot book tell me “divination” means “to talk with Gods”, and I think “the Gods(or high self or universe or whatever)” have right and power to keep something secret. We keep curious and honest and try our best to touch the limitation of our divination tools, but there are always things beyond that.

Sometimes I vaguely feel the cards don’t tell me what will actually happen but what they “think” it best for me to know or to do, even though I believe it’s a hard or bad path. Sometimes I have a feeling that the universe might speak a white lie to me. I’m not sure about this, maybe just I made something wrong in those readings. Rachel Pollack said (as my friend told me), the tarot will always gives the cards most fit you to understand in your own reading. I’m probably unable to accept this. There are some others’ reading in which they read the cards well but I can’t. However, there are some my own reading in which I can’t make sense of the cards at all,  does it mean tarot gives the cards doesn’t fits me?

Then, if readers have no ways to reveal what we shouldn’t know now or ever, we have no ways to be punished for this reason. What do you think? Does divination have any other qualities to make it different and magical so that we should take care about it and never forget the law of three times or karma?

So what do you think about these issues? Let me know!

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